They were originally brought to the islands from Latin America during the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines. Dole and Del Monte also established plantations in the island of Mindanao in the s; in the provinces of Cotabato and Bukidnon , respectively.
The Pineapple: Botany, Production And Uses
The flesh and juice of the pineapple are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries, pineapple is prepared and sold on roadsides as a snack. It is sold whole or in halves with a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are used in desserts such as fruit salad, as well as in some savory dishes, including pizza toppings, or as a grilled ring on a hamburger.
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Traditional dishes that use pineapple include hamonado , afritada , kaeng som pla , and Hawaiian haystack. Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The Netherlands was the largest importer of pineapple juice in Europe. Thailand , Costa Rica and the Netherlands are the major suppliers to the European Union market in — From —, the largest growth in pineapple juice consumption was by Angola.
The consumption of pineapple juice in China and India is low compared to their populations. Pininyahang manok Philippines. The 'Red Spanish' cultivar of pineapples were once extensively cultivated in the Philippines. These were woven into lustrous lace-like nipis fabrics usually decorated with intricate floral embroidery known as calado and sombrado. The fabric was a luxury export from the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period and gained favor among European aristocracy in the 18th and 19th centuries.
They were favored for their light and breezy quality, which was ideal in the hot tropical climate of the islands.
The pineapple: botany, production and uses - DAF eResearch Archive (eRABBB)
The industry was destroyed in the Second World War and is only starting to be revived. Calado embroidery on a barong Tagalog. In , world production of pineapples was In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits.
Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new plant will grow. Slips and suckers are planted commercially. Three-quarters of the pineapples sold in Europe are grown in Costa Rica, where pineapple production is highly industrialised.
Selective pruning in pineapple plants as means to reduce heterogeneity in fruit quality
The pesticides— organophosphates , organochlorines , and hormone disruptors —have the potential to affect workers' health and can contaminate local drinking water supplies. Many cultivars are known. Many cultivars have become distributed from its origins in Paraguay and the southern part of Brazil , and later improved stocks were introduced into the Americas, the Azores, Africa, India, Malaysia and Australia.
Pineapple fruits and peels contain diverse phytochemicals , among which are polyphenols , including gallic acid , syringic acid , vanillin , ferulic acid , sinapic acid , coumaric acid , chlorogenic acid , epicatechin , and arbutin. Present in all parts of the pineapple plant,  bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes. Bromelain is under preliminary research for a variety of clinical disorders, but to date has not been adequately defined for its effects in the human body.
If having sufficient bromelain content, raw pineapple juice may be useful as a meat marinade and tenderizer. The quantity of bromelain in a typical serving of pineapple fruit is probably not significant, but specific extraction can yield sufficient quantities for domestic and industrial processing.
Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs  typically found on the surface of pineapples, but possibly in the closed blossom cups. The causal agents of pink disease are the bacteria Acetobacter aceti , Gluconobacter oxydans , Pantoea citrea. Some pests that commonly affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips , mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids. Heart-rot is the most serious disease affecting pineapple plants. The disease is caused by Phytophthora cinnamoni and P.
Since it is difficult to treat, it is advisable to guard against infection by planting resistant cultivars where these are available; all suckers that are required for propagation should be dipped in a fungicide, since the fungus enters through the wounds. Some buyers prefer green fruit, others ripened or off-green. A plant growth regulator, Ethephon , is typically sprayed onto the fruit one week before harvest, developing ethylene , which turns the fruit golden yellow.
After cleaning and slicing, a pineapple is typically canned in sugar syrup with added preservative. A pineapple never becomes any riper than it was when harvested. The fruit itself is quite perishable  and if it is stored at room temperature, it should be used within two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time span extends to 5—7 days. Mimi Sheller writes: "The pineapple entered European iconography as a symbol of welcome and hospitality, and also eventually found its way into botanical gardens such as the Chelsea Physic Garden , where it was grown in heated pits.
The pineapple was first a luxury because transit from the tropics to Europe was expensive in the age of sail. In this respect, pineapple was much like sugar, a commodity of privilege before it became an item of the masses. In architecture, pineapple figures are a decorative element symbolizing hospitality. Pineapples have long been associated with the Hawaiian Islands, to the extent that the pineapple is sometimes used as a symbol of Hawaii,  despite the decline of the pineapple industry in that state.
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A pineapple being prepared by a roadside vendor in Hainan , China. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of plant. For other uses, see Pineapple disambiguation. Ananas acostae C. Commelijn Ananas ananas L. Ananas argentata J. Ananas aurata J. Ananas bracteatus Baker Ananas coccineus Descourt.
Ananas debilis Schult. Ananas lyman-smithii Camargo nom. Ananas maxima Schult. Ananas ovatus Mill. Koch Ananas pyramidalis Mill. Ananas sativa Lindl. Ananas sativus Schult. Ananas serotinus Mill. Ananas viridis Mill. Ananassa ananas L. Ananassa debilis Lindl. Bromelia ananas Willd.
Bromelia communis Lam. Bromelia comosa L. Bromelia edulis Salisb. Bromelia violacea Schult. Bromelia viridis Mill. Distiacanthus communis Lam. Rojas Acosta. Chicken afritada Philippines. Tepache Mexico.
Kaeng som pla Thailand. Main article: List of countries by pineapple production. Main article: List of pineapple diseases. Play media. Food portal. Retrieved 25 July Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 6 December The Pineapple: Botany, Production, and Uses. Retrieved 15 August Tropical Permaculture. Archived from the original on 17 June Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 23 February Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press. Retrieved 19 August Dole Food Co. Retrieved 15 February Penguin Books. An Incomplete Education. Archived from the original on 4 March Annals of Botany.
In Voigt C, Kingston T eds. Government of Hawaii, Department of Agriculture.
Pineapple is an increasingly important crop and demand for fresh pineapple is steadily growing; stakeholders in the value chain are worldwide.